Do not use suckers from banana plants affected by BXW, even if the suckers appear healthy; Remove male buds by hand or with a forked stick. For information on reusing text from Wikipedia, please see the terms of use. Xanthomonas wilt of banana (BXW) is a bacterial disease that seriously affects banana production. Similarly, the proportion of farmers applying components of a disease management package differs within districts. The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest. https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2009.828.41, Mwangi M, William T, Ndungo V, Flora N, Philip R, Ranajit B (2006) Comparative study of banana Xanthomonas wilt spread in mid and high altitudes of the Great Lakes region of Africa. BXW symptoms can be sorted into two domains: symptoms on the inflorescence and symptoms on the fruit. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2012.02173.x, Tripathi L, Mwangi M, Abele S, Aritua V, Tushemereirwe WK, Bandyopadhyay R (2009) Xanthomonas wilt: a threat to banana production in East and Central Africa. Xanthomonas wilt is a major constraint to banana production in the East and Central Africa. High Xanthomonas wilt incidence and severity was associated with Impara and Eastern plateau agro-ecological zones, intercropping systems, brewing bananas, dense spacing, and homogenous cultivars. To learn how to add open license text to Wikipedia articles, please see this how-to page. © 2020 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. The farmers that received information from trusted sources like extension officers, researchers, Rwanda Agriculture Board Scientists, MINAGRI, and NGOs are limited and these sources mainly reached farmers in the major banana growing districts. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3059.2007.01640.x, Rutikanga A, Sivirihauma C, Murekezi C, Anuarite U et al (2013) Banana Xanthomonas wilt management: effectiveness of selective mat uprooting coupled with control options for preventing disease transmission. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10658-017-1189-6, Carter BA, Reeder R, Mgenzi SR, Kinyua ZM, Mbaka JN, Doyle K, Nakato V, Mwangi M, Beed F, Aritua V, Lewis Ivey ML, Miller SA, Smith JJ (2010) Identification of Xanthomonas vasicola (formerly X. campestris pv. http://www.statistics.gov.rw/publication/seasonal-agricultural-survey-report-2015. Agro-ecological zones of Rwanda based on differences in climatic, topographic, and edaphic environment (Verdoodt and Van Ranst 2006) and banana Xanthomonas wilt distribution in the surveyed districts during 2015 and 2016. Plant Dis 93(5):440–451. Moreover, involving banana farmers in disease surveillance, extension, and decision-making would motivate them to own the problem. The technique is easily applicable for farmers and can significantly reduce the disease but requires consistent use with the other disease management methods. [13] However, this single diseased stem removal should go hand in hand with prevention of new infections that can occur through the use of contaminated garden tools or through insect vector transmission. 2008). Hence, they are good communicators but need consistent trainings and updates on specific aspects like detection, spread, and management of emerging diseases. 2016a ). Disease spread has been primarily linked with the transport of plants shoots for replanting. Pflp and Hrap genes encoding the proteins plant ferredoxin-like amphipathic protein (pflp) and hypersensitive response-assisting protein (hrap) were isolated from sweet pepper and introduced to the genome of East African bananas using genetic engineering. Afr Crop Sci J 16(1):1–8. 1.2 Banana varieties and their uses 2 1.3 Challenges to the banana industry in ECA 5 2.0 Xanthomonas wilt of banana in East and Central Africa 9 2.1 Regional distribution 9 2.2 Taxonomy and nomenclature 15 2.3 Disease diagnosis 15 2.3.1 Leaf symptoms 16 2.3.2 Inflorescence symptoms 17 i) Male bud symptoms 17 ii) Fruit symptoms 18 PubMed Google Scholar. This is to reduce the risk of moving bacteria on cutting tools; Clean cutting tools. BXW is a major disease in Ethiopia and Uganda and can result in 70-100% losses of enset.[5]. The disease spreads through insect vectors, contaminated tools and planting materials. Chemical approaches: Once the plant is infected there is no treatment to control the disease. 2.2. Licensed under CC-BY-SA License statement/permission on Wikimedia Commons. 2013; Tushemereirwe et al. Xanthomonas wilt of banana is a bacterial disease that has seriously affected banana production in the East and Central African (ECA) region. In addition, bananas’ robust and perennial features play an important role in protecting soil from erosion on hilly terrain, and banana plant parts are used as livestock fodder, for making baskets, carpets, shoes and indoor decorations (Karamura et al. musacearum bacteria is transmitted to airborne vectors through exposed male flowers (see plant reproductive morphology). This agrees with the finding that proper implementation of management practices by the farmers remains limited. Banana Xanthomonas wilt caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. XW, first reported in Ethiopia in 1968 (Yirgou & Bradbury, 1968, [15][16] This is a promising step forward in circumventing the time consuming and expensive practices of disease management such as 'debudding'. Use household bleach (1 bleach : 4 water), solutions containing local plants with … 2012) occupying 23% of the area cultivated and contributing to 28% of the total crop production (NISR 2016). 2011), and the majority of interviewees in this study (70% and 58%) were aware of these means respectively (Table 2A). PubMed  Xanthomonas wilt incidence was two times lower in pure stand than in intercropped banana (Table 1). and enset (Ensete ventricosum) caused by the bacteria Xanthomonas campestris pv.musacearum (Xcm) has severely affected the production of banana and plantain in the east and central African (ECA) region. And some farmers (13% in Huye, 27% in Rusizi, and 53% in Nyamasheke districts) received trainings by Rwanda Agriculture Board staffs, MINAGRI, and local NGOs. https://doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.1.3874.7765, Night G, Gaidashova S, Nyirigira A, Mugiraneza T et al. Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. - 198.23.60.106. 2, Table 1). Bioversity International, Kigali, pp 16–20, Mwangi M, Nakato V (2009) Key factors responsible for the Xanthomonas wilt epidemic on banana in east and central africa. Was analyzed livelihoods of more than 20 million farmers in Rwanda was also that... Understand the mechanisms behind these findings intensive and imposes continuous Training and extension efforts ( McCampbell et al device! And that informal banana trade between countries is not strictly regulated BXW ) is under. Sustainable banana production in the Great Lakes region of Tanzania ( Shimwela al! 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