Case study research, in which the subject of the research is studied within its social, political, organisational, or economic context, is one of the commonest approaches across the social and management sciences. Examine rival explanations. endstream endobj 796 0 obj<>/Size 749/Type/XRef>>stream A protocol is a blueprint for a research instrument: for example, a survey questionnaire, or a set of questions for an interview. A large project with multiple cases, or a complex single case with much data collection, for example, may require a team of research assistants. Yin (2009, location no. It is also good for describing a situation or phenomenon occurring in the present, where in-depth description is useful and where the researcher does not need to manipulate events. Data collection instruments for case study . A case study may be defined as an in-depth exploration of a phenomenon, an individual process or an event based on the context that uses multiple techniques for data collection and analysis. While there are software packages available (for example, The Ethnograph, ATLAS.ti, HyperRESEARCH, and NVivo), these do not provide analysable outputs. External validity – the extent to which it is possible to generalise from the findings of case studies. The beginning of the research process is all about definition: not only your research question, but also your unit of analysis, which is the actual object or entity being studied. [�i4�F��k���(��Z ��R�����]�v��xQ�9Ih"N#��Y�9��3�#�����G�S��9���R��,�Lۼ�aÔ+��� ��X|������` j�� Case Study Research Narrative theory research analysis approach involves in-depth examination of a case under study. Its disadvantage, however, is its resource intensiveness. This works well in an explanatory case study, set up to test certain propositions, however it may be less suitable for one that is descriptive or exploratory. 0000002893 00000 n 0000033228 00000 n "Data analysis is the process of bringing order, structure and meaning to the mass of collected data. Cross-case synthesis. 43 No. Following are the advantage of case study Method. Data Collection And Analysis Paper. There is some debate as to whether or not it is appropriate to use theory at this stage, but some initial delving into theory will help you further define the parameters of the case you are investigating. Good case study design involves providing empirical data for analysis and conclusion (Gummesson, 2007), but doing so in such a way that stands up to scrutiny. Exploratory: the case study is used to define questions and hypotheses – or to test out a research procedure – for a further piece of research, such as a large-scale survey. This involves comparing a predicted pattern with one revealed by the outcome of the case study. The following principles will help increase construct validity and reliability. Almost every year a hurricane blast through Florida and takes its toll on the business, industry and affects the lives and dollars of the company and its workers. The research paradigm adopted for any specific research exercise will affect the research results by creating a slightly different view or the perspective of the study (Christensen, 2007). The data collection process demands that the researcher be actively involved, asking the right questions which link to those that are central to the study, in a manner which does not alienate the subject. 0000016881 00000 n Case study research is neither a quick nor a soft option. Construct validity – this is all about making sure the research uses the right operational measures, appropriate to what is being studied. 0000013547 00000 n 2816) mentions five particular analytical techniques: Of these, Yin (2009) describes pattern matching as "one of the most desirable" (location no. Analysis of the tables then enables the researcher to draw conclusions across the data. A notable use has been the study of different cultural or social groups, or urban neighbourhoods (see "How to... use ethnographic methods and participant observation"). 0000003526 00000 n 0000011306 00000 n Rowley, J. Typically, data are gathered from a variety of sources and by using several different methods (e.g. the opportunity for a holistic approach without the distraction of too many variables (Gummesson, 2007). 295-296) claim that the selection of cases has the same objectives as random sampling in that what is desired is a representative sample and useful variation on the dimensions of theoretical interest. Vishu short essay in english rubric for case study analysis my favourite teacher essay in hindi ... ideas for dissertation topics in law review essay restaurant and collection analysis Case study data analysis study Case collection data and. The first is rich detail in recording events, interviews, and o bservations. If case study research is never a soft option, the collection and analysis of data can be particularly challenging. He or she needs to be a good listener, paying attention not only to what is said, but also to what is not said explicitly, perhaps indicated by mood or body language. 4. Descriptive: the case study is used to describe a particular phenomenon within its context. In summary, the protocol should cover the following: You should have decided on the type of case, and type of design, and how your case(s) relate to the population studied, etc., at an earlier stage. It requires considerable skill on the part of the researcher, who needs to be adept at identifying and analysing data from a number of different sources. Interviews, survey questionnaires, publically available information and audio-visual material are all potential sources of data to a researcher. And the negative side of readily available specialist statistical software is that it becomes that much easier to generate elegantly presented rubbish” [2] . 0000020093 00000 n If you are not part of a team, you may find it beneficial to attend a course on research methods for case studies, perhaps held by your institution or by an independent body. The work of defining the research questions and proposition is unique to each study, but when it comes to selecting and developing the instrument, there are a number of different possible research designs for case studies. If case study research is never a soft option, the collection and analysis of data can be particularly challenging. Yin, R.K. (2003), Case Study Research: Design and Methods, 3rd ed., Sage, London. It is also important to have clarity in terms of the trail of evidence that leads from the research questions to the conclusions, and back again. Qualitative data analysis is a search for general statements about relationships among categories of data." The first task is to decide what it is you are trying to find out by defining your research question. <]>> 0000004288 00000 n Such a logic (Trochim, 1989) compares an empiri-cally based pattern with a predicted one (or with several alternative predic- tions). 0000015819 00000 n They may help with the organisation of your material, but you need to come up with your own codes. 638-650). The studies identify a number of data sources. Some researchers combine case studies with other methods, such as a survey: for example, you could conduct a survey of several local councils, and provide a case study of one council. Woodside (2010, p. 107) maintains that a multiple methods approach is essential in order to elicit both conscious and unconscious thinking processes. Since more than one case will have been used for a reason, it is obviously necessary to compare findings across cases in order to reach valid conclusions. This simply means choosing whether your study will include just one, or several cases. 6, pp. endstream endobj 757 0 obj<> endobj 758 0 obj<>stream Hitherto it has been assumed that theory is developed as part of the initial research work, drawing from the literature review, and that data are analysed against theory. 0000004039 00000 n It also requires a skill common to all qualitative researchers: the ability to interpret as well as analyse, to see through spin, and if necessary, check information with another source. Case study research is a qualitative research method that is used to examine contemporary real-life situations and apply the findings of the case to the problem under study. With case study evidence coming from so many sources, there is no such fixed cut-off point, so it can be difficult to know when to stop. Research method is the effective tool towards gathering of information in sciences. If you conduct a pilot case study, this will help you refine your plans for collecting data, for example the type of questions you might want to ask your interview subjects. Corroborating, or contradicting, evidence from interviews or other sources. 0000004634 00000 n It studies a social unit in its entire perspectives. Intensive Study. Field procedures, in other words, guidelines as to how the case study will be conducted. Essay searching website. The advantages and disadvantages of case studies as a data collection method are discussed and guidelines for their use are given. 851-876. 3, pp. %%EOF Citing Literature. 256-257) commented on how they maintained a chain of evidence: "Using multiple researchers, we continually communicated our methodological decisions to respondents and recorded the data mechanically by using a tape recorder. 2 No. Advertisements. Lloyd-Jones, G. (2003), "Design and control issues in qualitative case study research", International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Vol. Cepeda and Martin (2005) see theory building as a key stage in the case study research process. This has been pointed out by a number of authors – Gerring and McDermott (2007), Lloyd-Jones (2003) and Yin (2009) – despite the fact that the case study is normally considered a qualitative method. Each case is treated as a separate study, and the resulting data are compared. Data collection methods in a case study may involve interviews, observations, questionnaires, checklists, analysis of recorded data and opinionnaires. The sources can include interviews, first-hand observation, surveys and document reviews. A holistic case is one where the case is the unit of analysis; an embedded one is where there are several units of analysis in the case. Choosing more than one method also has the advantage that one method's weakness can be balanced out by another's strengths. 2 No. x�bb�f`b``Ń3� ���ţ�1�x4>F�c�a� ��� 0000012803 00000 n H�. This type of approach has the benefit of combining qualitative and quantitative research. Quite often this criticism relates not to the method as such, but to the way case studies are presented: the author does not leave a clear audit trail detailing his or her research and explaining the conclusions. Especial care needs to be taken with vulnerable groups, such as children. Data Collection Techniques •Data collection techniques allow us to systematically collect information about our objects of study (people, objects, phenomena) and about the settings in which they occur. Observations can be done of individuals within the case in their natural setting. Cepeda, G. and Martin, D. (2005), "A review of case studies publishing in Management Decision: guides and criteria for achieving quality in qualitative research", Management Decision, Vol. Furthermore, for case studies, theory development as part of the design phase is essential, whether the ensuing case study's purpose is to develop or test theory, with theory development taking place prior to the collection of any case study data being an essential step in doing case studies (YIN, 2003a, pp.28-29). 249-269. An extreme or unique case – for example, a study of a rare disorder. 16-27. This method of qualitative data analysis starts with an analysis of a single case to formulate a theory. 0000005181 00000 n 0000014608 00000 n This offers the possibility of several different layers of analysis which can reveal several different perspectives, with the added benefit of triangulation of the results. Woodside, A.G. (2010), Case Study Research: Theory, Methods and Practice, Emerald Group Publishing Limited, UK. • Benefits from the prior development of theoretical propositions to guide data collection and data analysis. This may take the form of a proposition. Any narratives composed by the researcher during investigations. In other words, the subject of the research is comprehensively studied as an example of a real live phenomenon, within the context in which it happens. 0000028246 00000 n One major advantage of the case study in psychology is the potential for the development of novel hypotheses for later testing. You need a case where people will be helpful, leading you to key informants, providing access to documents, and allowing you to interview or survey staff. Another problem is that there is no end point for data collection, unlike, for example, the survey, where the parameters of the investigation are fixed by the number of responses (assuming the researcher considers the response rate to be satisfactory). 0 The case study database should contain plenty of evidence that is then referred to in the report. data collection methods, which can be triangulated against one another. The case study may use a variety of ways to collect information, depending on the nature of the case and with the aim of making it possible to cross-study, or analysis angles. (2010), "Stakeholder management online: an empirical analysis of US and Swedish political party web sites", Journal of Information, Communication and Ethics in Society, Vol. A representative case – a case that is representative, or typical, of a particular situation. 8T�EQ������'=����k�������[����h$P�����^��r��*Mu�i�v|-! (2003), "Case study method for new product development in engineer-to-order organizations", Work Study, Vol. In an ideal scenario, this topic has to be considered as early as possible in the policy cycle, when preparing the policy and planning the related monitoring and evaluation activities (particularly the data collection). Hence it is typically used for exploratory research and data analysis. Helping make sure that people's names are spelt correctly. For most case studies, the primary source of data will be participant interviews. Then, additional cases are examined to see if they contribute to the theory. 0000016307 00000 n He or she needs to pay attention to multiple sources of evidence, and be able to handle complexity, and the possibility that new information may lead in a new direction, while at the same time not losing sight of the original research questions. one that can test a particular theory. Both types of case study design have their advantages. Because visual communication precedes verbal, visual data collection methods are a powerful way of helping individuals retrieve unconscious thoughts. 0000033660 00000 n This method is applicable to any case research which employs at least two cases. Employ both qualitative and quantitative data. According to Yin (2006), case study research is best applied when the research addresses descriptive or explanatory questions: i.e. Another definition is given by Dul and Hak: "A case study is a study in which a) one case (single case study) or a small number of cases (comparative case study) in their real life context are selected, and b) scores obtained from these cases are analysed in a qualitative manner" (Dul and Hak, 2007, p. 4). Review methods: Literature examining qualitative data analysis was reviewed and strategies illustrated by the case study example provided. Download Citation. Gerring, J. and McDermott, R. (2007), "An experimental template for case study research", American Journal of Political Science, Vol.

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